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Nano Bismuth and its application

Nano Bismuth and its application
Nano Bismuth (atomic symbol: Bi, atomic number: 83) is a Block P, Group 15, Period 6 element with an atomic radius of 208.98040. The number of electrons in each of Bismuth's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3. Bismuth Bohr Model The bismuth atom has a radius of 156 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 207 pm. In its elemental form, bismuth is a silvery-white brittle metal. Bismuth is the most diamagnetic of all metals and, with the exception of mercury, its thermal conductivity is lower than any other metal. Elemental Bismuth Bismuth has a high electrical resistance and has the highest Hall Effect of any metal (i.e., the greatest increase in electrical resistance when placed in a magnetic field). Bismuth is found in bismuthinite and bismite. It is also produced as a byproduct of lead, copper, tin, molybdenum, and tungsten extraction. Bismuth was first discovered by Early Man. The name Bismuth originates from the German word 'bismuth,' meaning white mass. Bismuth nanoparticles have mean diameter of 40–50 nm and exhibit the same crystal structure as the bulk bismuth.
Nano Bismuth are also known as nanocrystal, nanopowder, or nanodots. These nanoparticles are nontoxic and have high surface area magnetic non-structured particles. Bismuth nanoparticles have a variety of applications. They are harmless to human life. These particles serve as the industrial lubricant additive, heat transfer medium in a nuclear reactor, an alloying agent in metallurgy, and a contrast agent in the medical image and cancer radiotherapy. Apart from this, the bismuth nanoparticles have several other uses such as it is used in fire detectors, electric fuses, and solders. However, when these particles are alloyed with tin or cadmium, then these particles are used as extinguishers. On the other hand, the industries of paint and cosmetics also use bismuth nanoparticles. In the field of glazes, plumbing, and ceramics these particles are used as the substitute for lead. Additionally, the bismuth nanoparticles are also useable in medication at a large level. So, these particles play a pivotal role because of their matchless uses.
 
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