Recently, covid 19 outbreak spreads in Shanghai, China. There are more than 25,000 new asymptomatic domestic infections every day. China is implementing a dynamic zero-out policy. A leading respiratory expert said the key to COVID-19 prevention and control is to minimize transmission and fatality rate. Omicron has a low case fatality rate but is highly transmissible and can still claim many lives in large outbreaks. "Total openness is not applicable in China. For China, we should keep to the dynamic zero-out and gradually open up."
However, "dynamic zero clearance" is not the pursuit of complete "zero infection". As the Novel Coronavirus has its own uniqueness and strong concealment, there may be no way to prevent the detection of cases at present, but rapid detection and prompt treatment must be carried out, as soon as one case is found, one case will be dealt with.
The situation in Shanghai is serious. As the financial center of China, Shanghai is a very important city, and the outbreak of the epidemic in Shanghai will put a great impact on China's economy. The current task is to contain the spread of the epidemic as soon as possible, to achieve social zero so that Shanghai's life and economy quickly return to normal.
As China plays an important role in the global supply chain, the outbreak will have a significant impact on the supply and prices of many lithium-ion battery.
1. Basic concepts of lithium-ion battery:
The lithium-ion battery has a nominal voltage of 3.7V (3.6V) and a charge cut-off voltage of 4.2V (4.1V, which has different designs according to the brand of the battery). (The specification for lithium-ion batteries is: lithium-ion secondary batteries
2. Requirements for charging lithium-ion battery (GB/T182872000 specification)
First of all, constant current charging, that is, the current is constant, and the battery voltage gradually increases with the charging process. When the battery terminal voltage reaches 4.2V (4.1V), the constant current charging is changed to constant voltage charging; the voltage is constant, and the current is based on the battery. The saturation level gradually decreases as the charging process continues, and when it decreases to 0.01C, the charging is considered to be terminated. (C is a way of expressing the battery's nominal capacity against the current. For example, if the battery has a capacity of 1000mAh, 1C is the charging current of 1000mA. Note that it is me instead of mAh, and 0.01C is 10mA.) Of course, the standard representation is 0.01 C5A, simplified here.
3. Why do you think 0.01C is the end of charging?
This is stipulated by the national standard GB/T18287-2000, and it is also discussed. In the past, everyone generally ended with 20mA. The industry standard YD/T998-1999 of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications also stipulates that no matter how large the battery capacity is, the stop current is 20mA. The 0.01C specified by the national standard helps charge more fully, which is beneficial for the manufacturer to pass the appraisal. In addition, the national standard stipulates that the charging time should not exceed 8 hours; that is to say, even if it has not reached 0.01C, the charging is considered to be over after 8 hours. (Batteries with good quality should reach 0.01C within 8 hours, for batteries with poor quality, it is meaningless to wait).
4. How to distinguish whether the battery is 4.1V or 4.2V?
Consumers are indistinguishable; it depends on the product specification of the cell manufacturer. Some brands of batteries are 4.1V and 4.2V universal, such as A&TB (Toshiba); domestic manufacturers are 4.2V, but there are exceptions, such as Tianjin Lishen is 4.1V (but it is currently 4.2V).
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Southern Copper Corp (SCCO.N) recently said its Peruvian mine remained closed after a six-week standoff with protesters and blamed the Peruvian government for failing to intervene in the safety of its 1,300 workers and their families.
The company said in a statement that a recent agreement to end protests at the Cuajone mine required the company to withdraw complaints against protest leaders because railways transporting minerals and supplies remained blocked. Production has been suspended since the end of February.
Peru's Energy Ministry said in a separate statement that it had also reached an agreement with Southern Copper to start talks to find common ground with local communities.
"If we shut down for a year, the government will stop receiving more than 3.1 billion soles ($830 million) in taxes and royalties, and 8,000 direct and indirect jobs will be lost. This is what we want to avoid, "Southern Copper added in the statement.
Peru has faced a wave of protests from indigenous communities, who accuse mining companies of not providing enough jobs and funding to poor local residents.
Central bank officials said last week that protests against copper mines such as MMG's Las Bambas and Southern Copper's Cuajone were dragging down the economy.
Peru is the world's second-largest copper producer and mining is an important source of tax revenue for the country. It is estimated that the supply and prices of the lithium-ion battery will be influenced by that.
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